Source: (Dora Mitsonia)

In computers, encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and also certain symbols) into a technical format for efficient storage or transmission. Decoding is the alternative process — the conversion of a encoded format back in to the original arrangement of characters. Encoding and decoding are used in data communications, networking, and storage. The word is particularly applicable to wireless (wireless) communications systems.
The code utilized by the majority of computers for text files is well known as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange, pronounced ASK-ee). Other commonly-used codes contain Unicode, BinHex, Uuencode, and MIME. In data communications, Manchester encoding is just a special type of communicating by the binary digits (bits) represent the transitions between low and high logic states. In wireless communications, numerous encoding and construction methods exist, a few of which are used solely by specialized classes of people (amateur radio operators, by way of example). The earliest code whatsoever, originally employed in the landline telegraph throughout the 19th century, could be that the Morse code.
The provisions encoding and decoding are often utilised in reference to the procedures of analog-to-digital conversion and digital-to-analog conversion. In this sense, these terms may affect any form of data, including text, images, audio, multimedia, video, computer programs, or signals in detectors, telemetry, and control systems. Encoding should not be mistaken with encryption, an activity in which data will be intentionally shifted in order to conceal its articles. Encryption may be carried out without changing the particular code that the articles is also in, and communicating can be carried out without deliberately concealing the content.